Today is J.R.R. Tolkien’s birthday. Born on January 3, 1892, he would be 127 today if he had been a longliver or immortal. To celebrate the occasion I decided to reblog my most popular Tolkien post. Tolkien’s work has made many of our lives so much richer, but he was also a friend in everyday life. And as a friend to C.S. Lewis he made life-changing interventions that opened up his career as a popular SF&F writer. This is a part of that story.
The Tolkien Letters that Changed C.S. Lewis’ Life
This actually happened three times, though we don’t have most of the letters that J.R.R. Tolkien sent to his friend C.S. Lewis over the years.
The first letters that changed Lewis’ life were more than letters. Throughout the 1920s Lewis had grown from atheism to a belief in God, relying mostly on philosophical constructs to move, piece by piece, into the Enemy’s camp (from Lewis’ perspective as a reluctant convert). Lewis hesitated to convert to Christianity, however. Among the reasons for this hesitation was his concern about the “Christ myth.” While he loved myths, he thought they had little representative value–they don’t tell us much about real life. And he felt the Christ myth was derivative, or even distasteful. Why not turn to Osiris, Dionysus, or Balder and get better poetry thrown in?
Tolkien responded in a few ways. To the first objection, that myths have no value, Tolkien wrote a poem, “From Philomythus to Misomythus“–from MythLover to MythHater, what we now call the Mythopoeia poem. The first lines show a bit of how Tolkien won Lewis to the idea that myths were not just “lies … breathed through silver,” but contained deeper truth than bare fact could tell us:
You look at trees and label them just so,
(for trees are ‘trees’, and growing is ‘to grow’);
you walk the earth and tread with solemn pace
one of the many minor globes of Space:
a star’s a star, some matter in a ball
compelled to courses mathematical
amid the regimented, cold, inane,
where destined atoms are each moment slain.
The second objection was overcome in a slower process: with long talks and long walks, with beer and pipes and late nights whispering as we did as children. Lewis tells us the story in his conversion letters to his best friend:
Now what Dyson and Tolkien showed me was this: that if I met the idea of sacrifice in a Pagan story I didn’t mind it at all: again, that if I met the idea of a god sacrificing himself to himself … I liked it very much and was mysteriously moved by it: again, that the idea of the dying and reviving god (Balder, Adonis, Bacchus) similarly moved me provided I met it anywhere except in the Gospels. The reason was that in Pagan stories I was prepared to feel the myth as profound and suggestive of meanings beyond my grasp even tho’ I could not say in c old prose ‘what it meant’.
Now the story of Christ is simply a true myth: a myth working on us in the same way as the others, but with this tremendous difference that it really happened (letter to Arthur Greeves, Oct 18th, 1931; Collected Letters, 976-977).
This one-two punch not only brought C.S. Lewis into the Christian faith that he would engender for the rest of his life, but it also gave Lewis back the idea of “myth” that had slid away from him during his university years. The deepest truths of myth informed all of Lewis’ ideas about literature and philosophy, and was the foundation of his best fiction.
The second life-changing moment involved a conversation now kept in the Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, and a humorous note by Tolkien to a publisher.
It is not often that we have the conversation of intimates left to us in history, which probably means that we don’t know much about history. In one instance, though, Tolkien shared a moment in the mid-1930s, a conversation that Lewis and he had:
L. [Lewis] said to me one day: ‘Tollers, there is too little of what we really like in stories. I am afraid we shall have to try and write some ourselves.’ We agreed that he should try ‘space-travel’, and I should try ‘time-travel’. His result is well known. My effort, after a few promising chapters, ran dry: it was too long a way round to what I really wanted to make, a new version of the Atlantis legend. The final scene survives as The Downfall of Númenor. This attracted Lewis greatly (as heard read), and reference to it occurs in several places in his works: e.g. ‘The Last of the Wine’, in his poems (Poems, 1964, p. 40). We neither of us expected much success as amateurs, and actually Lewis had some difficulty in getting Out of the Silent Planet published. And after all that has happened since, the most lasting pleasure and reward for both of us has been that we provided one another with stories to hear or read that we really liked – in large parts. Naturally neither of us liked all that we found in the other’s fiction (Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, 378).
It is now a famous story. It captures the “double dare” of two good friends, as well as their characteristic writing styles. Lewis was quick to the pen, even if it took the audience a while to get it to their bookshelves. Tolkien was slow, cautious, and self-deprecating, and wrote for an audience that still hangs on every word.
While Lewis could write quickly, this was still 1937. In the popular world, Lewis had had two books of poetry that sold poorly, and an obscure spiritual autobiography that barely counts as fiction. Although his academic work was well received, there was no audience for Out of the Silent Planet, a H.G. Wells-like interplanetary romance. Lewis struggled to find a publisher.
Solid and hesitant both, J.R.R. Tolkien decided to use his modest voice as the successful author of The Hobbit to try to help Lewis to popular print. He wrote to Stanley Unwin, the publisher who had discovered Tolkien’s potential. First, he confirms the double dare story:
We originally meant each to write an excursionary ‘Thriller’: a Space-journey and a Time-journey (mine) each discovering Myth. But the Space-journey has been finished, and the Time-journey remains owing to my slowness and uncertainty only a fragment, as you know (Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, 29).
Tolkien continues in this letter and another–bundled and sent together–to encourage its publication. Tolkien notes first that the protagonist, Dr. Ransom, is only coincidentally a philologist (like Tolkien), and that Out of the Silent Planet had passed the test of being read to the Inklings. In the second note, solicited by Unwin, Tolkien is more careful in his apology since it had received a poor review from one of Unwin’s readers, who called it “bunk.” Tolkien’s humour shines through in response:
I was disturbed by your reader’s report. I am afraid that at the first blush I feel inclined to retort that anyone capable of using the word ‘bunk’ will inevitably find matter of this sort – bunk (Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, 33).
More than wry humour, Tolkien tells the story of the Silent Planet‘s worth:
I read the story in the original MS. and was so enthralled that I could do nothing else until I had finished it. My first criticism was simply that it was too short. I still think that criticism holds, for both practical and artistic reasons. Other criticisms, concerning narrative style (Lewis is always apt to have rather creaking stiff-jointed passages), inconsistent details in the plot, and philology, have since been corrected to my satisfaction. The author holds to items of linguistic invention that do not appeal to me (Malacandra, Maleldil — eldila, in any case, I suspect to be due to the influence of the Eldar in the Silmarillion – and Pfifltriggi); but this is a matter of taste. After all your reader found my invented names, made with cherished care, eye-splitting. But the linguistic inventions and the philology on the whole are more than good enough. All the pan about language and poetry – the glimpses of its Malacandrian nature and form — is very well done, and extremely interesting, far superior to what one usually gets from travellers in untravelled regions. The language difficulty is usually slid over or fudged. Here it not only has verisimilitude, but also underlying thought (Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, 32-3).
Tolkien, of course, would be concerned with philology! After all, he spent decades working on the languages for Middle Earth with “cherished care.” While Tolkien did not really get Narnia (Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, 32-3) or some of Lewis’ philosophical fiction, he thought Out of the Silent Planet had real value:
I should have said that the story had for the more intelligent reader a great number of philosophical and mythical implications that enormously enhanced without detracting from the surface ‘adventure’. I found the blend of vera historia with mythos irresistible (Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, 33).
Any literary praise from Tolkien is high praise. The letter contains some criticism as well, a balanced assessment that is able to check Tolkien’s love for Lewis and his desire for Lewis’ success. Although Unwin’s firm did not publish Out of the Silent Planet, Stanley Unwin invited its submission to The Bodley Head. Unwin was the chair of the board of The Bodley Head, and they took the risk (Jack 235). Thus began C.S. Lewis’ world-class career as a popular storyteller.
The third life-changing moment I will only share in brief. Because of his public voice as a Christian intellectual and because of the popular literature that we love, Lewis never got tenure at Oxford–he never was elected to a chair. For years, Tolkien was quietly working to try to help Lewis move forward to a position as professor, which would give him more time to publish (e.g. Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, 108).
Eventually, Tolkien took another path. Despite the fact that their relationship had cooled, when a Chair in Medieval and Renaissance Literature opened at Cambridge, Tolkien worked hard to lead Lewis to the promotion, negotiating for Lewis to be considered even when he withdrew his name for the chair (Lewis had recommended another candidate). Finally, Tolkien arranged it so that Lewis could live at his home in Oxford out of term and on weekends, being near his family and gardens.
It was enough. At Tolkien’s urging Lewis took the chair and Lewis began an era–1954-1963–that was rich for him. Lewis wrote perhaps his best work, Till We Have Faces, as well as his spiritual autobiography, Surprised by Joy. He met, married, taught, wrote, and felt the fading of his own life–first with the death of Joy, his wife, and second in his own failing health.
In one of those letters, Tolkien wrote that he and Lewis were “amateurs in a world of great writers” (378). I’m not sure that we are really in a world of great writers, but it was Tolkien and Lewis’ friendship with each other that brought them to the level of “great” in fantasy and popular literature. Truly, these letters and late night talks changed C.S. Lewis’ life, and changed the lives of so many readers after him.
Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien. New York: HarperCollins, 2006. Print.
Hooper, Walter, ed. The Collected Letters of C.S. Lewis, Volume I: Family Letters 1905-1931. New York: HarperCollins, 2004. Print.
Sayer, George. Jack: A Life of C.S. Lewis. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 1996.
Thank you for this post, I enjoyed it immensely. Can I suggest a slight correction? Tolkien would be 127 today, not 126 🙂
Right, because it is 2019! Duh! Well done.
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🙂 I still live in 2018 mentally myself.
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You do write this kind of piece so well! There are so many passages that stand out. I particularly liked the paragraph that began, “It is now a famous story…” referring to the tale of the double dare, with your contrast of Lewis and Tolkien. And the story of Tolkien’s support for Lewis and the Cambridge Chair always reads well. You tell it concisely and pithily.
As for me I believe that Lewis gives us so many memorable images in his work and that in itself is praiseworthy. Whether he is a great writer is perhaps still too early to tell. Just as his public Christianity was a barrier to his academic career so it stands against a willingness to judge the true quality of his writing dispassionately. As for Tolkien I have no doubt that he is a truly great writer.
And Lewis’s essay, The Abolition of Man, is one of the great contributions to his time and ours. Or at least it ought to be unless we are actually and actively willing our destruction.
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Thanks Stephen! Did you read Rowan Williams’ writing on Lewis?
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I have been thinking about that. I listened to a series of talks on Lewis and Narnia that he gave in a teaching weekend at Canterbury Cathedral a few years ago which were posted on his website. I liked them very much. The point that stands out in my memory was “I tell no-one’s story except their own.” It has become a very important principle in my pastoral ministry and I am reminded that tomorrow I will see someone who has a tendency to talk about others when I meet with her.
I also note that Tom Shippey was quite critical of Rowan Williams on Lewis but I don’t know why. But then you were critical of Michael Ward and his Planet Narnia thesis. Have you written on this yet? I hope that I haven’t missed it.
I didn’t know about the Shippey-Williams thing, but I haven’t read Williams yet.
Yes, I have the Michael Ward critique out in the wind: https://anunexpectedjournal.com/reconsidering-the-planet-narnia-thesis/. Your comment does make me more curious, though.
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As an Catholic I consider Tolkien as one of prominent victims of escape into virtual reality. As the man of the so-caled “digital” age I understand him and the more I pity him. The temptation to escape from the modern world is enormous. One starts to drink alcohol, another – to play video games or use other kind of drugs, more talented – to write lengthy, fabulous books. The purpose, IMVHO, is unfortunately the same.
You could not be more mistaken. Consuming alcohol and drugs, and playing games others made, are passive activities isolating a person within his own experience and making his presence in this world useless. He might as well be dead in the time he shuts himself inside his own mind, watching dream images no one can share or learn anything from.
What Tolkien did was the exact opposite of that! He created new images to the honour of God, providing new windows into a higher and purer reality to people who could not access such vision by other routes; people for whom, for instance, the church was not a conscious option. For many, the church BECAME an option after encountering Tolkien’s vision! C. S. Lewis was one of them! Though he did not become a Catholic like his friend, he became a Christian and has inspired millions of people to come to Christ.
Moreover, Tolkien in his stories clearly demonstrated in detail the difference between good and evil, as understood within Christianity. Reading them and meditating upon them strengthens that insight in the reader. It is a great gift to the whole world to have access to such wisdom. Millions are grateful to Tolkien for his effort. I wonder if you have actually read his books, or merely watched the (ethically and religiously speaking) butchered film versions by Peter Jackson?
An alcoholic or a drug addict as such brings no deeper insight into good and evil to anyone, and certainly no inspiration to hope even when the odds seem impossible. Tolkien does all that. His message is to keep faith through all trials and work for good against evil no matter what; then grace will heal us even from our own sins. What message can be better? Or more true?
Read him with open eyes.
thank you for your kind opinion. As to your points:
ad 1 “What Tolkien did was the exact opposite of that! He created new images to the honour of God, providing new windows into a higher and purer reality to people who could not access such vision by other routes”
I do not know what you mean by the “higher and purer reality” especially if you refer to a kind of syncretic myth based (in particular “Silmarillion”) on pagan, gnostic and other heretic traditions (e.g. the Tolkien’s myth on creation with demiurgs or demi-gods is not Catholic at all). You cannot honour God by presenting cosmology diferring materially from His Revelation.
Referring to “the access to such vision” in fact you confirm my initial remark that Tolkien escaped into a virtual reality – his vision that has nothing to do with truth.
ad 2 “people for whom, for instance, the church was not a conscious option. For many, the church BECAME an option after encountering Tolkien’s vision!”
I agree that after the reading of Tolkien’s works (I don’t mean his letters here because there are some valuable Christian truths there) and encountering his vision most probably the Church will become an option not the necessary way to salvation. I don’t know anybody who converted after the reading of LOTR or Silmarilion – in spite of their tremendous popularity starting from the 60-70’s.
ad 3 “C. S. Lewis was one of them! Though he did not become a Catholic like his friend, he became a Christian and has inspired millions of people to come to Christ.”
AFAIK CSL became a “Christian” not because of his reading of Hobbit, LOTR or other fictional Tolkien’s work. I suppose works of GKC and Tolkien’s religiosity shown outside his works may have something to do with it.
ad 4 “Moreover, Tolkien in his stories clearly demonstrated in detail the difference between good and evil, as understood within Christianity. Reading them and meditating upon them strengthens that insight in the reader”
I am sorry Ma’am but you are wrong. Few examples: Christianity condemns magic as intrinsically evil – in Tolkien’s work there is good magic and black magic, in Christianity the death is a punishment for sin, in Tolkien’s works – a gift or privilege from his “god”. In Christianity God is a just judge who rewards for good and punishes for evil – Tolkien’s god Iluvatar is more similar to gnostic or freemasonic Great Architect of the World who left the world which became a trifle for his demi-gods (Ainurs). And so on.
ad. 5 “It is a great gift to the whole world to have access to such wisdom. Millions are grateful to Tolkien for his effort.”
Yes, millions can be grateful to Tolkien for his effort but neither it changes the character nor the content of his works.
ad. 6 “I wonder if you have actually read his books, or merely watched the (ethically and religiously speaking) butchered film versions by Peter Jackson?”
Dear Ma’am, I referred in my previous remarks to JRR Tolkien not to Peter Jackson, so please assume that I read his books and did so several times.
ad. 7 “An alcoholic or a drug addict as such brings no deeper insight into good and evil to anyone, and certainly no inspiration to hope even when the odds seem impossible. Tolkien does all that.?”
I am afraid you missed my point . Alcoholism or drug addiction is the result of the attempt to escape from reality. I agree that the Tolkien’s result is more “epic”, “fabulous” and “spectacular” but perhaps also more misleading and dangerous for the soul.
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